Matteson Art


Marsh Periwinkle, Family Littorinidae

Marsh Periwinkle
Littoraria irrorata (Say, 1822)
Family Littorinidae

The Marsh Periwinkle is sometimes found on S. Hutchinson Island beaches.

Collected on S. Hutchinson Island in January, 2021

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Two shells of the common periwinke Littorina littorea

Scientific classification
Kingdom:     Animalia
Phylum:     Mollusca
Class:     Gastropoda
Subclass:     Caenogastropoda
Order:     Littorinimorpha
Superfamily:     Littorinoidea
Family:     Littorinidae
Children, 1834[1]

    Littorininae Children, 1834
    Lacuninae Gray, 1857
    Laevilitorininae Reid, 1989

Two freshwater species and numerous marine species.

The Littorinidae are a taxonomic family of over 200 species of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the clade Littorinimorpha, commonly known as periwinkles and found worldwide.

    1 Names
    2 Taxonomy
    3 References
    4 Further reading


In English-speaking countries, gastropod molluscs from other families, such as the Neritidae, are sometimes also commonly known as "winkles" because they are small, round snails that occupy a similar ecological niche.

These subfamilies have been recognized in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005):

    Subfamily Littorininae Children, 1834 – synonyms: Echinininae Rosewater, 1972; Tectariinae Rosewater, 1972; Melaraphidae Starobogatov & Sitnikova, 1983
    Subfamily Lacuninae Gray, 1857 – synonyms: Risellidae Kesteven, 1903; Cremnoconchinae Preston, 1915; Bembiciidae Finlay, 1928.
    Subfamily Laevilitorininae Reid, 1989

Genera within the family Littorinidae include:[3]


    Afrolittorina Williams, Reid & Littlewood, 2003
    Austrolittorina Rosewater, 1970
    Cenchritis von Martens, 1900
    Echinolittorina Habe, 1956 – synonyms: Amerolittorina Reid, 2009;[4] Fossarilittorina Rosewater, 1981; Granulilittorina Habe & Kosuge, 1966; Lineolittorina Reid, 2009[4]
    Littoraria Griffith & Pidgeon, 1834 – 39 species
    Littorina Férussac, 1822 – 18 species – type genus
    Mainwaringia Nevill, 1885[5]
    Melarhaphe Menke, 1828
    Nodilittorina von Martens, 1897 – this genus proved to be polyphyletic and in 2003 was divided into:
        Echinolittorina – 59 species worldwide
        Austrolittorina – five species
        Afrolittorina – four species
        Nodilittorina s.s. – the monotypic subgenus[6]
    Peasiella - Nevill, 1885
    Tectarius Valenciennes, 1833 – 11 species, its synonym or subgenus includes: Echininus Clench & Abbott, 1942.


    Bembicium Philippi, 1846
    Cremnoconchus Blanford, 1869[5][7] – freshwater snails living in waterfalls.[2]
    Lacuna Turton, 1827 – synonym: Aquilonaria Dall, 1886
    Pellilitorina Pfeffer in Martens & Pfeffer, 1886
    Risellopsis Kesteven, 1902


    Laevilacunaria Powell, 1951
    Laevilitorina Pfeiffer, 1886

subfamily ?

    Algamorda Dall, 1918
    Macquariella Finlay, 1927 (?)
    Rissolitorina Ponder, 1966


    Corneolitorina Powell, 1951: synonym of Laevilitorina (Laevilitorina) Pfeffer in Martens & Pfeffer, 1886 represented as Laevilitorina Pfeffer, 1886
    Haloconcha Dall, 1886 is a synonym for Lacunaria Dall, 1885
    Macquariella Finlay, 1926: synonym of Laevilitorina Pfeffer, 1886
    Rissolittorina Ponder, 1966: synonym of Laevilitorina Pfeffer, 1886


Children J. G. (1834). Synopsis of the contents of the British Museum. ed. 28: 110.
Strong E. E., Gargominy O., Ponder W. F. & Bouchet P. (2008). "Global Diversity of Gastropods (Gastropoda; Mollusca) in Freshwater". Hydrobiologia 595: 149–166. hdl:10088/7390 doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9012-6.
World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) : Littorinidae
Reid, D. G. (2009). "The genus Echinolittorina Habe, 1956 (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in the western Atlantic Ocean" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2184: 1–103. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2184.1.1.
(file created 29 July 2010) FRESH WATER MOLLUSCAN SPECIES IN INDIA[permanent dead link]. 11 pp. accessed 31 July 2010.
S T Williams; D G Reid; D T J Littlewood (2003). "A molecular phylogeny of the Littorininae (Gastropoda: Littorinidae): unequal evolutionary rates, morphological parallelism, and biogeography of the Southern Ocean". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 28 (1): 60–86. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00038-1. PMID 12801472. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012.

    Blanford W. T. (1869). "Notes on some Indian and Mascarene Land-Shells". Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)3: 340-344. page 343.

    "Littorinidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
    Powell A. W. B., New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-00-216906-1

Further reading
David G. Reid; Suzanne T. Williams (2004). "The subfamily Littorininae in the Temperate Southern Hemisphere: the genera Nodilittorina, Austrolittorina and Afrolittorina" (PDF). Records of the Australian Museum. 56: 75–122. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.56.2004.1393.