Turbans: Family Turbinidae

Turbans: Family Turbinidae

Turbans are fairly common on S. Hutchinson Island beaches. The most common by far being the Turbo castanea, the Chestnut Turban. Below is an enlarged pic of a Chestnut Turban.

 

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Turbinidae
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Scientific classification e
Kingdom:     Animalia
Phylum:     Mollusca
Class:     Gastropoda
Subclass:     Vetigastropoda
Order:     Trochida
Superfamily:     Trochoidea
Family:     Turbinidae
Rafinesque, 181


Genera and species
Turbinidae, the turban snails, are a family of small to large marine gastropod molluscs in the superfamily Trochoidea.[1]

Description
Turbinidae have a strong, thick calcareous operculum readily distinguishing them from the somewhat similar Trochidae or top snails, which have a corneous operculum. This strong operculum serves as a passive defensive structure against predators that try to enter by way of the aperture or that would break the shell at the outer lip.

Etymology
The common name turban snail presumably refers to the shell's similarity in appearance to a turban. However, the scientific name Turbinidae is based on the genus name Turbo, which is Latin for spinning top, a child's toy. The word turbine has a similar derivation.

Taxonomy
Previously[when?] they were classified in the subclass Prosobranchia, in the order Archaeogastropoda in the superfamily Trochacea. Trochaecea is now a synonym for the superfamily Trochoidea. However, this is a quite ancient group of gastropods, probably originating in the Permian period 298 to 250 million years ago.[2] They have typical primitive characters like the nacreous interior of the shell.

2005 taxonomy
Turbinidae belongs to superfamily Turbinoidea according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005).

This family consists of eight following subfamilies (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005):

    Turbininae Rafinesque, 1815 - synonyms: Senectinae Swainson, 1840; Imperatorinae Gray, 1847; Astraliinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854; Astraeinae Davies, 1935; Bolmidae Delpey, 1941
    Angariinae Gray, 1857 - synonym: Delphinulinae Stoliczka, 1868
    Colloniinae Cossmann, 1917
        tribe Colloniini Cossmann, 1917 - synonym: Bothropomatinae Thiele, 1924 (inv.); Homalopomatinae Keen, 1960; Petropomatinae Cox, 1960
        tribe † Adeorbisinini Monari, Conti & szabo, 1995
        tribe † Crossostomatini Cox, 1960
        tribe † Helicocryptini Cox, 1960
    Moellerinae Hickman & McLean, 1990
    † Moreanellinae J. C. Fischer & Weber, 1997
    Prisogasterinae Hickman & McLean, 1990 - synonym: "Prisogastrinae" in Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) is a spelling error.[3]
    Skeneinae W. Clark, 1851 - synonym: Delphinoideinae Thiele, 1924
    Tegulinae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971

2008 taxonomy
Astraea rugosa (Linnaeus, 1767), a fossil turbinid from the Pliocene of Cyprus.

Turbinidae was redefined and moved to the redefined superfamily Trochoidea according to Williams et al. (2008):[4] Angariidae was elevated to family level, Colloniinae was elevated to family Colloniidae within Phasianelloidea,[4] Margaritinae was moved to Turbinidae from Trochidae.[4]

This family consists of five following subfamilies according to Williams et al. (2008):[4]

    Turbininae Rafinesque, 1815 - synonyms: Senectinae Swainson, 1840; Imperatorinae Gray, 1847; Astraliinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854; Astraeinae Davies, 1935; Bolmidae Delpey, 1941
    Skeneinae W. Clark, 1851 - synonym: Delphinoideinae Thiele, 1924 (upgraded to the rank of family Skeneidae)
    Margaritinae Thiele, 1924 - tribes are sensu taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005) - upgraded to the rank of family Margaritidae
        tribe Margaritini Thiele, 1924 - synonym: Margaritinae Stoliczka, 1868 (inv.)
        tribe Gazini Hickman & McLean, 1990
        tribe Kaiparathinini Marshall, 1993
    Tegulinae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971: upgraded to the rank of family Tegulidae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971
    Prisogasterinae Hickman & McLean, 1990

The following subfamilies (sensu Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) classification of subfamilies in Turbinidae) were kept in Turbinidae:

    Moellerinae Hickman & McLean, 1990 - Moelleria was not included in the molecular studies performed in 2010.[4][5]
    † Moreanellinae J. C. Fischer & Weber, 1997

Distribution

Turbinids occur in shallow and deep waters. The family has a large distribution, from the tropics to the polar regions, but most of the species live in tropical and subtropical shallow waters.
Genera
The shell of Guildfordia yoka, a deep water turbinid

Genera in the family Turbinidae include:

Not belonging to any subfamily

    Phanerolepida Dall, 1907
    Tropidomarga Powell, 1951

Turbininae[6]

Lithopoma tectum

    Astraea Röding, 1798
    Astralium Link, 1807
    Bellastraea Iredale, 1924
    Bolma Risso, 1826
    Cookia Lesson, 1832
    Guildfordia Gray, 1850
    Lithopoma Gray, 1850
    Lunella Röding, 1798
    Megastraea McLean, 1970[7]
    Modelia Gray, 1850
    Pomaulax Gray, 1850
    Turbo Linnaeus, 1758 - type genus
    Uvanilla Gray, 1850
    Yaronia Mienis, 2011

Prisogasterinae Hickman & McLean, 1990

    Prisogaster Mörch, 1850[3]

Genera brought into synonymy

    Astrea Link, 1807: synonym of Astraea Röding, 1798
    Agathistoma Olsson & Harbison, 1953: synonym of Tegula Lesson, 1832
    Amyxa Troschel, 1852: synonym of Prisogaster Mörch, 1850
    Calcar Montfort, 1810: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
    Canthorbis Swainson, 1840: synonym of Astraea Röding, 1798
    Cardinalia Gray, 1842: synonym of Tectus Montfort, 1810
    Crosseia P. Fischer, 1885: synonym of Crossea A. Adams, 1865
    Cyclocantha Swainson, 1840: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
    Dinassovica Iredale, 1937: synonym of Turbo (Turbo) Linnaeus, 1758 represented as Turbo Linnaeus, 1758
    Distellifer Iredale, 1937: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
    Foliastralium Habe & Okutani, 1980: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
    Galeoastraea Habe, 1958: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
    Halopsephus Rehder, 1943: synonym of Turbo (Halopsephus) Rehder, 1943 represented as Turbo Linnaeus, 1758
    Harisazaea Habe, 1958: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
    Imperator Montfort, 1810: synonym of Astraea Röding, 1798
    † Incilaster Finlay, 1926: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
    Livona Gray, 1842: synonym of Cittarium Philippi, 1847
    Lunatica Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo Linnaeus, 1758
    Macropelmus Gistel, 1848: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
    Margarita Leach, 1819: synonym of Margarites Gray, 1847
    Micrastraea Cotton, 1939: synonym of Bellastraea Iredale, 1924
    Notosetia Iredale, 1915: synonym of Putilla A. Adams, 1867
    Okinawastraea Habe & Okutani, 1981: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
    † Oobolma Sacco, 1896 : synonym of Bolma'' Risso, 1826
    † Ormastralium Sacco, 1896: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
    Pachypoma Gray, 1850: synonym of Lithopoma Gray, 1850
    Pagocalcar Iredale, 1937: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
    Pseudastralium Schepman, 1908: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
    Pyramidea Swainson, 1840: synonym of Tectus Montfort, 1810
    Pyramis Schumacher, 1817: synonym of Tectus Montfort, 1810
    Rugastella Iredale, 1937: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
    Senobolma Okutani, 1964: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
    Stella P. Fischer, 1885: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
    Submargarita Strebel, 1908: synonym of Lissotesta Iredale, 1915
    Tharsiella Bush, 1897: synonym of Cirsonella Angas, 1877
    Trochiscus G.B. Sowerby I, 1838: synonym of Norrisia Bayle, 1880
    † Tylastralium Sacco, 1896: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
    Valvatella Gray, 1857: synonym of Margarites Gray, 1847

References

Bouchet, P. (2014). Turbinidae Rafinesque, 1815. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=503 on 2014-07-28
Alf A., Kreipl K. & Poppe G. T. (2003) The Family Turbinidae, Subfamily Turbininae, Genus Turbo. In: Poppe G. T. & Groh K. (eds.): A Conchological Iconography: 68 pp., 95 colour plates, ConchBooks, Hackenheim, ISBN 3-925919-27-9.
Gofas, S. (2009). Prisogasterinae. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2009) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=382193 on 2010-04-19
Williams S. T., Karube S. & Ozawa T. (September 2008) "Molecular systematics of Vetigastropoda: Trochidae, Turbinidae and Trochoidea redefined". Zoologica Scripta 37(5): 483-506. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00341.x
Search for Moelleria, National Center for Biotechnology Information, accessed 19 April 2010.
Gofas, S. (2009). Turbininae. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2009) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=225151 on 2010-04-19

    Alf A. & Kreipl K. (2011) The family Turbinidae. Subfamilies Turbininae Rafinesque, 1815 and Prisogasterinae Hickman & McLean, 1990. In: G.T. Poppe & K. Groh (eds), A Conchological Iconography. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. pp. 1-82, pls 104-245.

    Marshall, B.A. 1988. Skeneidae, Vitrinellidae and Orbitestellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) associated with biogenic substrata from bathyal depths off New Zealand and New South Wales. Journal of Natural History 22(4): 949-1004.
    Vaught, K.C. (1989). A classification of the living Mollusca. American Malacologists: Melbourne, FL (USA). ISBN 0-915826-22-4. XII, 195 pp.
    Williams S.T., Karube S. & Ozawa T. (2008) Molecular systematics of Vetigastropoda: Trochidae, Turbinidae and Trochoidea redefined. Zoologica Scripta 37: 483–506.

External links

    Seashells of New South Wales : Turbinidae
    Seashells of New South Wales: Skeneinae
    Miocene Gastropods and Biostratigraphy of the Kern River Area, California; United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 642 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.


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