Florida Rocksnail

Florida Rocksnail
Stramonita haemastoma floridana (Conrad, 1837)

Florida Rocksnails are fairly common on S. Hutchinson Island beaches.

Two Rocksnails (s. Hutchinson Island- November 2020)

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Stramonita haemastoma
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Scientific classification
Kingdom:     Animalia
Phylum:     Mollusca
Class:     Gastropoda
(unranked):     clade Caenogastropoda
clade Hypsogastropoda
clade Neogastropoda
Superfamily:     Muricoidea
Family Muricidae
Subfamily:     Rapaninae
Genus:     Stramonita
Species:     S. haemastoma
Binomial name
Stramonita haemastoma
(Linnaeus, 1767)

    Buccinum cingulatum Lamarck, 1816
    Buccinum haemastoma Linnaeus, 1767 (basionym)
    Haustrum striatum Perry, 1811
    Murex consul Gmelin, 1791
    Purpura barcinonensis Hidalgo, 1867
    Purpura fasciata Dunker, 1857
    Purpura forbesi Dunker, 1853
    Purpura gigantea Calcara, 1840
    Purpura gigantea Reeve, 1846
    Purpura haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767)
    Purpura haemastoma acuminata Settepassi, 1977
    Purpura haemastoma bulbosa Settepassi, 1977
    Purpura haemastoma elongata Settepassi, 1977
    Purpura haemastoma var. calva Weinkauff, 1873
    Purpura haemastoma var. cornuta Philippi, 1844
    Purpura haemastoma var. costellata Pallary, 1900
    Purpura haemastoma var. gracilior Kobelt, 1887
    Purpura haemastoma var. minima Pallary, 1900
    Purpura haemastoma var. minor Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfuss, 1882
    Purpura haemastoma var. nodulosa Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfuss, 1882
    Purpura haemastoma var. striata Pallary, 1900
    Purpura laevis Monterosato, 1878
    Purpura lineata Kiener, 1835
    Purpura macrostoma Küster, 1860
    Purpura nebulosa Conrad, 1867
    Purpura nuttalli Conrad, 1837
    Purpura oceanica Locard, 1886
    Purpura unifascialis Lamarck, 1816
    Purpura viduata Küster, 1859
    Thais grisea Röding, 1798
    Thais haemastoma Linnaeus
    Thais metallica Röding, 1798
    Thais stellata Röding, 1798

Stramonita haemastoma, common name the red-mouthed rock shell or the Florida dog winkle, is a species of predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Muricidae, the rock snails.[1]

    1 Subspecies
    2 Distribution
    3 Description
    4 Feeding habits
    5 Human use
    6 References
    7 Further reading
    8 External links


Stramonita haemastoma contains the following subspecies:[1][2]

    Stramonita haemastoma canaliculata (Gray, 1839)
    Stramonita haemastoma floridana (Conrad, 1837)
    Stramonita haemastoma haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767)


The red-mouthed rock shell occurs widely in tropical and warm water areas of the Western Atlantic Ocean. Regions where it can be found include the Caribbean Sea, North Carolina and Florida, Bermuda and the entire Brazilian coast, including the islands of Abrolhos and Fernando de Noronha. It is also found in the Eastern Atlantic: tropical Western Africa and Southwestern Africa, including Cape Verde and Angola, and in European waters, including Macaronesian Islands, the Mediterranean Sea and the southwest coast of Apulia.[1][3][4] Canary Islands. Its once abundant population in the Eastern Mediterranean collapsed early in the 21st century and had entirely disappeared by 2016.[5][6]

The adult shell size for this species varies between 22 mm and 120 mm.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2011)
Feeding habits

Stramonita haemastoma is a widespread gastropod that consumes bivalves, barnacles and limpets. In the Mediterranean Sea the whelk is an important predator of the bivalve Mytilaster minimus, but where the invasive Lessepsian migrant bivalve Brachidontes pharaonis is found, the whelk prefers to prey on that species over the native bivalves and barnacles.[7] Through feeding behaviors such as attacking the margin or lip of shells where defenses are weakest, Stramonita haemastoma insert its proboscid between the valves injecting proteolytic enzymes and a toxin that causes bivalves to gape.[2][8]
Human use
purple dyed fabric

The shell was one of two principal sources of Tyrian purple, a highly prized dye used in classical times for the clothing of royalty, as recorded by Aristotle and Pliny the Elder.[5]

Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767). Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 17 December 2018.
Watanabe, J.T. & Young, C.M. 2006. Feeding habits and phenotypic changes in proboscis length in the southern oyster drill, Stramonita haemastoma (Gastropoda: Muricidae), on Florida sabellariid worm reefs. Marine biology, 148:1021-1029.
Leal, J. H. (2002). "Gastropods" (PDF). In Carpenter, K. E. (ed.). The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No. 5. 1: Introduction, molluscs, crustaceans, hagfishes, sharks, batoid fishes, and chimaeras. Rome: FAO. pp. 128–132. ISBN 978-92-5-104825-2.[permanent dead link]
"Conquiliologistas do Brasil". Thais haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767). 2001–2010. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
Beaumont, Peter (5 December 2016). "Ancient shellfish used for purple dye vanishes from eastern Med". BBC. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
Rilov, Gil (17 November 2016). "Multi-species collapses at the warm edge of a warming sea". Scientific Reports. 6: 36897. doi:10.1038/srep36897. PMC 5113072. PMID 27853237.
Giacoletti, A., Rinaldi, A., Mercurio, M., Mirto, S. and Sarà, G. 2016. "Local consumers are the first line to control biological invasions: a case of study with the whelk Stramonita haemastoma (Gastropoda: Muricidae)". Hydrobiologia. 772:117–129.

    McGraw, K.A., Gunter, G. 1972. Observations on killing of the Virginia oyster by the gulf oyster borer, Thais haemastoma, with evidence for a paralytic secretion. Proc Nat Shellfish Assoc 62:95–97.

Further reading

    Bernard, P.A. (Ed.) (1984). Coquillages du Gabon [Shells of Gabon]. Pierre A. Bernard: Libreville, Gabon. 140, 75 plates
    Gofas, S.; Afonso, J.P.; Brandào, M. (Ed.). (S.a.). Conchas e Moluscos de Angola = Coquillages et Mollusques d'Angola. [Shells and molluscs of Angola]. Universidade Agostinho / Elf Aquitaine Angola: Angola. 140 pp
    Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. (2001). Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180–213
    Rolán E., 2005. Malacological Fauna From The Cape Verde Archipelago. Part 1, Polyplacophora and Gastropoda
    Rosenberg, G., F. Moretzsohn, and E. F. García. 2009. Gastropoda (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 579–699 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas.
    Ramírez R., Tuya F. & Haroun R. J. (2009) "Spatial patterns in the population structure of the whelk Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1766) (Gastropoda: Muricidae) in the Canarian Archipelago (eastern Atlantic)". Scientia Marina 73(3) doi:10.3989/scimar.2009.73n3431

External links
"Stramonita haemastoma haemastoma". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 10 January 2011.

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